Phyto-examination of soil and determination of soil phytopathogens
Despite a wide selection of highly effective pesticides, the annual losses from fungal and bacterial diseases are estimated by experts to reach 30% of the crop. The main reasons for this are untimely processing and errors in the selection of plant protection products. The only way to reduce these losses is the qualified monitoring of the development of pathogens and planning of measures to combat them based on the exact knowledge of the pathogen biology and the mechanism of action of various drugs. All this is possible only on condition of accurate and timely diagnosis.
PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF VEGETABLE SPECIMENS
How correctly to select samples of plants?
The sampling area does not matter. It is necessary to carefully examine the field.
Determine what are the deviations from the normal development of plants and the nature of their distribution (single, foci, mass).
On the plot without visible signs of damage, take an average sample (5-7 plants taken diagonally at the same distance from each other or alternately in non-adjacent rows).
On a site where plants with lesions of various types (wilting, spotting, discoloration, plaques, pustules, growths, deformations, rot, etc.) or developmental abnormalities, it is necessary to select 5-7 whole plants with signs of wilting.
For the analysis, whole plants are taken with the root system and soil (at least 100 g of soil from the root layer). If the plants are large, it is necessary to separate the typical and affected organs (samples of roots, stem, leaves, flowers and fruits).
Fresh samples are immediately packed in plastic bags. Inside the package, you must include a label with the contents:
Name of the farm:
Type of plant:
Method of irrigation:
Outdoor ground, greenhouse (underline)
Distribution: mass, 10-30%, 50%,
The root system, together with the root content of the soil, is tied so that the soil does not fall on the plant!
Phytopathological and bacteriological analysis of plant samples, conducted in our laboratory, allows us to quickly determine the microorganism that causes disease of the plant at the earliest stages of development, which in turn makes it possible to effectively use plant protection products for the prevention and treatment of this disease.
For the phyto-examination of seeds, one average sample is formed from each batch of material. A lot is considered a planting material that is homogeneous of one variety from one growing field. For the formation of the average sample from the total mass, small samples are taken from different places (when storing the planting material in the container samples are taken from different packs of units) and the entire volume of the samples taken is poured onto a flat surface, and 4 samples of 100 seeds (tubers, bulbs, seedlings, etc.), this aggregate is one average sample. The sample is packaged and labeled, indicating the grade, batch number. name of the farm (shop, department).
If the tubers are large and 4 to 100 will be too labor-consuming to take and send, you can limit one sample to 100 tubers, but the accuracy of the examination will be lower. If you do not want to know the degree (%) of the defeat of the party and just want to know – what disease affects the individual tubers on which you see rot – enough 10-15 tubers with signs of defeat.
Determination of cyst-forming nematodes in soil
Nematoda is a dangerous agricultural pest. Round worms of microscopic size can cause enormous damage to the crop, and in some cases for many years make it impossible to grow crops on your site.
Because of the small size and insufficient information about phytonematodes, agricultural producers underestimate the harmfulness of these organisms. And in the world, despite the applied measures of struggle, the total crop losses caused by nematodes are estimated at 70-80 billion dollars per year.
Well adapted to the habitat, multiply rapidly, have resting stages and are able to persist for 10 years or more in anticipation of the host plant, easily transfer the temperature to -40 degrees, in the state of anabiosis-heat.
Timely detection of a pest in the purchased planting material, imported to the farm substrate or organic fertilizers, makes it possible to prevent contamination of the site, or promptly take measures to disinfect it. That is why, the analysis of plant samples and substrates for the presence of nematodes is the most important element of the integrated plant protection system.
Most often, the nematode infects plants in greenhouses (tomatoes, cucumber …), and vegetatively propagated open ground plants (potatoes, onions, strawberries …). When signs of yellowing and deformation of leaves appear, growth retardation and wilting of plants, blistering and build-up (galls) on roots, as well as the purchase of planting material without a quarantine certificate, inspection of the nematode is mandatory.
In new areas, nematodes get infected with planting material. It is difficult to eliminate nematodes. Therefore, it is economically justified to apply to the “Agroanalysis” Laboratory, where there is the necessary equipment and specialists who will detect phytoparasitic nematodes in plant material (plants, seedlings, tubers, bulbs) within the framework of a complex analysis of the plant sample.
How correctly to select samples of plants?
For the study we select samples having any of the above characteristics, we pack and mark them with a label. In the label we indicate: Name of the farm, address, telephone number, surname of the person who selected the sample, field number, cell number, plant and variety.